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The inhibitory receptor LILRB4 (ILT3) modulates antigen presenting cell phenotype and, along with LILRB2 (ILT4), is upregulated in response to Salmonella infection.

Brown, DP; Jones, DC; Anderson, KJ; Lapaque, N; Buerki, RA; Trowsdale, J; Allen, RL (2009) The inhibitory receptor LILRB4 (ILT3) modulates antigen presenting cell phenotype and, along with LILRB2 (ILT4), is upregulated in response to Salmonella infection. BMC Immunology, 10 (56). ISSN 1471-2172
SGUL Authors: Allen, Rachel Louise

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BACKGROUND: Leukocyte Ig-like receptors (LILR) are a family of innate immune receptors with immunomodulatory functions. High-level expression of the receptors LILRB2 (ILT4) and LILRB4 (ILT3) is a feature of tolerogenic antigen presenting cells and has been observed in cancer and transplant situations. There are relatively few studies regarding these receptors in the context of infection and it is not yet clear how LILRB4 exerts its inhibitory effects. RESULTS: We studied the effects of LILRB4 ligation on antigen presenting cell phenotype, and the expression of LILRB2 and LILRB4 on Salmonella-infected antigen presenting cells. Ligation of LILRB4 throughout in vitro culture of dendritic cells led to an upregulation of the co-stimulatory protein CD86. Alterations in the production of IL-8 and IL-10 by LILRB4-ligated macrophages were also observed. Infection with Salmonella typhimurium or TLR stimulation with Salmonella components led to an upregulation of LILRB2 and LILRB4. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the inhibitory effects of LILRB4 do not result from a failure to upregulate co-stimulatory proteins. In addition to the high level expression that can render antigen presenting cells tolerogenic, there may be a role for lower level expression and activity of LILRB2 and LILRB4 in response to TLR signalling during an immune response to bacterial infection.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2009 Brown et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: Antigen-Presenting Cells, Antigens, CD86, Cells, Cultured, Dendritic Cells, Down-Regulation, Humans, Immunophenotyping, Interleukin-10, Interleukin-8, Macrophages, Membrane Glycoproteins, Receptors, Cell Surface, Receptors, Immunologic, Salmonella Infections, Salmonella typhimurium, Up-Regulation, Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Immunology, HUMAN DENDRITIC CELLS, ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS, IN-VITRO, EXPRESSION, DISEASE, MICE, HYPORESPONSIVENESS, INTERLEUKIN-10, TOLERIZATION, INNATE
SGUL Research Institute / Research Centre: Academic Structure > Infection and Immunity Research Institute (INII)
Journal or Publication Title: BMC Immunology
ISSN: 1471-2172
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27 October 2009Published
Web of Science ID: WOS:000271923800001
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