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Impacts of air pollution and noise on risk of preterm birth and stillbirth in London

Smith, RB; Beevers, SD; Gulliver, J; Dajnak, D; Fecht, D; Blangiardo, M; Douglass, M; Hansell, AL; Anderson, HR; Kelly, FJ; et al. Smith, RB; Beevers, SD; Gulliver, J; Dajnak, D; Fecht, D; Blangiardo, M; Douglass, M; Hansell, AL; Anderson, HR; Kelly, FJ; Toledano, MB (2020) Impacts of air pollution and noise on risk of preterm birth and stillbirth in London. ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, 134. p. 105290. ISSN 0160-4120 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.105290
SGUL Authors: Anderson, Hugh Ross

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Abstract

Background Evidence for associations between ambient air pollution and preterm birth and stillbirth is inconsistent. Road traffic produces both air pollutants and noise, but few studies have examined these co-exposures together and none to date with all-cause or cause-specific stillbirths. Objectives To analyse the relationship between long-term exposure to air pollution and noise at address level during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth and stillbirth. Methods The study population comprised 581,774 live and still births in the Greater London area, 2006–2010. Outcomes were preterm birth (<37 completed weeks gestation), all-cause stillbirth and cause-specific stillbirth. Exposures during pregnancy to particulate matter with diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and <10 μm (PM10), ozone (O3), primary traffic air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, PM2.5 from traffic exhaust and traffic non-exhaust), and road traffic noise were estimated based on maternal address at birth. Results An interquartile range increase in O3 exposure was associated with elevated risk of preterm birth (OR 1.15 95% CI: 1.11, 1.18, for both Trimester 1 and 2), all-cause stillbirth (Trimester 1 OR 1.17 95% CI: 1.07, 1.27; Trimester 2 OR 1.20 95% CI: 1.09, 1.32) and asphyxia-related stillbirth (Trimester 1 OR 1.22 95% CI: 1.01, 1.49). Odds ratios with the other air pollutant exposures examined were null or <1, except for primary traffic non-exhaust related PM2.5, which was associated with 3% increased odds of preterm birth (Trimester 1) and 7% increased odds stillbirth (Trimester 1 and 2) when adjusted for O3. Elevated risk of preterm birth was associated with increasing road traffic noise, but only after adjustment for certain air pollutant exposures. Discussion Our findings suggest that exposure to higher levels of O3 and primary traffic non-exhaust related PM2.5 during pregnancy may increase risk of preterm birth and stillbirth; and a possible relationship between long-term traffic-related noise and risk of preterm birth. These findings extend and strengthen the evidence base for important public health impacts of ambient ozone, particulate matter and noise in early life.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/BY/4.0/).
Keywords: MD Multidisciplinary, Environmental Sciences
SGUL Research Institute / Research Centre: Academic Structure > Population Health Research Institute (INPH)
Journal or Publication Title: ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL
ISSN: 0160-4120
Dates:
DateEvent
January 2020Published
26 November 2019Published Online
25 October 2019Accepted
Publisher License: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Projects:
Project IDFunderFunder ID
NE/I00789X/1Natural Environment Research Councilhttp://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000270
NE/I008039/1Natural Environment Research Councilhttp://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000270
MR/L01341X/1Medical Research Councilhttp://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000265
URI: http://openaccess.sgul.ac.uk/id/eprint/111389
Publisher's version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.105290

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