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Serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis disease epidemiology, seroprevalence, vaccine effectiveness and waning immunity, England, 1998/99 to 2015/16.

Findlow, H; Campbell, H; Lucidarme, J; Andrews, N; Linley, E; Ladhani, S; Borrow, R (2019) Serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis disease epidemiology, seroprevalence, vaccine effectiveness and waning immunity, England, 1998/99 to 2015/16. Euro Surveill, 24 (1). ISSN 1560-7917 https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.1.1700818
SGUL Authors: Ladhani, Shamez Nizarali

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Abstract

Background In 1999, the United Kingdom (UK) was the first country to introduce meningococcal group C (MenC) conjugate vaccination. This vaccination programme has evolved with further understanding, new vaccines and changing disease epidemiology. Aim To characterise MenC disease and population protection against MenC disease in England. Methods Between 1998/99-2015/16, surveillance data from England for laboratory-confirmed MenC cases were collated; using the screening method, we updated vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates. Typing data and genomes were obtained from the Meningitis Research Foundation Meningococcus Genome Library and PubMLST Neisseria database. Phylogenetic network analysis of MenC cc11 isolates was undertaken. We compared bactericidal antibody assay results using anonymised sera from 2014 to similar data from 1996-1999, 2000-2004 and 2009. Results MenC cases fell from 883 in 1998/99 (1.81/100,000 population) to 42 cases (0.08/100,000 population) in 2015/16. Lower VE over time since vaccination was observed after infant immunisation (p = 0.009) and a single dose at 1-4 years (p = 0.03). After vaccination at 5-18 years, high VE was sustained for ≥ 8 years; 95.0% (95% CI: 76.0- 99.5%). Only 25% (75/299) children aged 1-14 years were seroprotected against MenC disease in 2014. Recent case isolates mostly represented two cc11 strains. Conclusion High quality surveillance has furthered understanding of MenC vaccines and improved schedules, maximising population benefit. The UK programme provides high direct and indirect protection despite low levels of seroprotection in some age groups. High-resolution characterisation supports ongoing surveillance of distinct MenC cc11 lineages.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) Licence. You may share and adapt the material, but must give appropriate credit to the source, provide a link to the licence, and indicate if changes were made. This article is copyright of the authors or their affiliated institutions, 2019.
Keywords: Neisseria meningitidis, bacterial meningitis, epidemiology, immunisation, surveillance, vaccines
SGUL Research Institute / Research Centre: Academic Structure > Infection and Immunity Research Institute (INII)
Journal or Publication Title: Euro Surveill
ISSN: 1560-7917
Language: eng
Dates:
DateEvent
3 January 2019Published
7 July 2018Accepted
Publisher License: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
PubMed ID: 30621818
Go to PubMed abstract
URI: http://openaccess.sgul.ac.uk/id/eprint/110582
Publisher's version: https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.1.1700818

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