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CCR5 signalling, but not DARC or D6 regulatory, chemokine receptors are targeted by herpesvirus U83A chemokine which delays receptor internalisation via diversion to a caveolin-linked pathway.

Catusse, J; Clark, DJ; Gompels, UA (2009) CCR5 signalling, but not DARC or D6 regulatory, chemokine receptors are targeted by herpesvirus U83A chemokine which delays receptor internalisation via diversion to a caveolin-linked pathway. J Inflamm (Lond), 6. p. 22. ISSN 1476-9255 https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-9255-6-22
SGUL Authors: Clark, David John

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Herpesviruses have evolved chemokines and chemokine receptors, which modulate the recruitment of human leukocytes during the inflammatory response to infection. Early post-infection, human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) infected cells express the chemokine receptor U51A and chemokine U83A which have complementary effects in subverting the CC-chemokine family thereby controlling anti-viral leukocyte recruitment. Here we show that, to potentiate this activity, the viral chemokine can also avoid clearance by scavenger chemokine receptors, DARC and D6, which normally regulate an inflammatory response. Conversely, U83A delays internalisation of its signalling target receptor CCR5 with diversion to caveolin rich membrane domains. This mechanism can redirect displaced human chemokines to DARC and D6 for clearance of the anti-viral inflammatory response, leaving the viral chemokine unchecked. METHODS: Cell models for competitive binding assays were established using radiolabeled human chemokines and cold U83A on CCR5, DARC or D6 expressing cells. Flow cytometry was used to assess specific chemotaxis of CCR5 bearing cells to U83A, and internalisation of CCR5 specific chemokine CCL4 after stimulation with U83A. Internalisation analyses were supported by confocal microscopy of internalisation and co-localisation of CCR5 with caveosome marker caveolin-1, after virus or human chemokine stimulation. RESULTS: U83A displaced efficiently human chemokines from CCR5, with a high affinity of 0.01nM, but not from DARC or D6. Signalling via CCR5 resulted in specific chemoattraction of primary human leukocytes bearing CCR5. However, U83A effective binding and signalling to CCR5 resulted in delayed internalisation and recycling up to 2 hours in the absence of continual re-stimulation. This resulted in diversion to a delayed caveolin-linked pathway rather than the rapid clathrin mediated endocytosis previously shown with human chemokines CCL3 or CCL4. CONCLUSION: U83A diverts human chemokines from signalling, but not regulatory or scavenger, receptors facilitating their clearance, while occupying signalling receptors at the cell surface. This can enhance virus specific inflammation, facilitating dissemination to replication sensitive leukocytes while evading clearance; this has implications for linked neuro-inflammatory pathologies.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2009 Catusse et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Keywords: Immunology, 1103 Clinical Sciences, 1115 Pharmacology And Pharmaceutical Sciences
SGUL Research Institute / Research Centre: Academic Structure > Infection and Immunity Research Institute (INII)
Journal or Publication Title: J Inflamm (Lond)
ISSN: 1476-9255
Language: eng
Dates:
DateEvent
30 July 2009Published
30 July 2009Accepted
Publisher License: Creative Commons: Attribution 2.0
Projects:
Project IDFunderFunder ID
BBS/B/02231Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
PubMed ID: 19643012
Go to PubMed abstract
URI: http://openaccess.sgul.ac.uk/id/eprint/108137
Publisher's version: https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-9255-6-22

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