Advancing, promoting and sharing knowledge of health through excellence in teaching, clinical practice and research into the prevention and treatment of illness

Uneven focal shoe deterioration in Tourette syndrome.

Cavanna, AE; Monaco, F; Mula, M; Robertson, MM; Critchley, HD (2006) Uneven focal shoe deterioration in Tourette syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 2 (4). pp. 587-588. ISSN 1176-6328
SGUL Authors: Mula, Marco

PDF Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial.

Download (798kB) | Preview


A 31-year-old single man (AB) sought neuropsychiatric consultation for treatment-resistant motor and vocal tics. He described himself expressing a total of 24 different tics, mainly facial twitches (eye blinking, raising eyebrows, mouth opening, lips licking, stereotyped grimacing) and inappropriate utterances (grunting, throat clearing, sniffing), since the age of 7. There appeared to be no family history of tic disorder. He reported occasional utterance of swear words in contextually inappropriate situations (coprolalia), and the urge to copy other people’s movements (echopraxia). Other tic-associated symptoms included self-injurious behaviours and forced touching of objects. A.B. met both DSM-IV-tr and ICD-10 criteria for Tourette syndrome, and also DSM-IV-tr criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (combined type) in childhood.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2006 Cavanna et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (
Keywords: Neurology & Neurosurgery, 1103 Clinical Sciences, 1109 Neurosciences
SGUL Research Institute / Research Centre: Academic Structure > Institute of Medical & Biomedical Education (IMBE)
Academic Structure > Institute of Medical & Biomedical Education (IMBE) > Centre for Clinical Education (INMECE )
Journal or Publication Title: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
ISSN: 1176-6328
Language: ENG
15 December 2006Published
Publisher License: Creative Commons: Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0
Project IDFunderFunder ID
074333Wellcome Trust
PubMed ID: 18273399
Go to PubMed abstract
Publisher's version:


Item downloaded times since 22 Apr 2016.

Actions (login required)

Edit Item Edit Item